Hong Kong: Procedural Issues

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When the Competition Ordinance (Cap 619) (the Ordinance) is fully implemented in 2014, Hong Kong will become one of the last major advanced economies to enact comprehensive competition legislation. Hong Kong has long relished its reputation as ‘the most business-friendly city in the world’ with low personal and corporate tax rates and responsible government spending. Its free market principles espouse that light touch government intervention enables competition, which ultimately leads to more choice and better prices for the consumer. As in other major economies, however, experience has shown that competition needs a helping hand and after a nearly two-decade nascence the Ordinance is finally on the statute books.

Since the draft Ordinance was first published much has been written on its provisions and the way in which these have been ‘watered down’ to ensure its ultimate passage in face of fierce public and private opposition. Rather than repeat that discussion here, this article will focus on the procedural nitty-gritty of the Ordinance and how this will affect companies not only once the Ordinance is fully implemented but in the interim as well. It will look at the institutional framework and focus on the shape and scope of the powers of the new Competition Commission, how these tie in with the new Competition Tribunal and, perhaps most importantly, the sanctions (and potential for avoiding such) that companies face (both from the enforcement agencies and from private follow-on litigants).

Institutional framework

The Ordinance calls for the setting-up of two major institutions: the Competition Commission (the Commission) and the Competition Tribunal (the Tribunal), to enforce and adjudicate on its provisions.

The Competition Commission

The Commission will be an independent statutory body with a wide range of investigatory and enforcement powers, including the ability to investigate suspected infringements (either in response to complaints or on its own initiative) and to issue warnings and infringement notices. It will prosecute serious infringements before the Tribunal. It will not have the power to impose fines or other penalties for infringements, this power being reserved to the Tribunal (the Commission was originally slated to be able to impose a HK$10 million penalty but this power was one of the many casualties on the Legislative Council’s cutting floor in order to get the bill passed).

As in other jurisdictions, the Ordinance leaves it to the Commission to prepare and issue detailed regulatory guidelines on the precise interpretation of the rules as well as on procedural and substantive matters (such as the complaints and investigations procedures, the treatment of vertical agreements, the application of block exemptions etc). These have yet to be promulgated but now that the members of the Commission have been appointed, it is expected that the various guidelines, and thus the flesh of the Ordinance, will soon be forthcoming.

It will be some consolation for businesses that there will be a transitional period to allow for them to adapt.

Other functions of the Commission will include promoting public understanding of the Ordinance, advising the government on competition matters and, importantly, issuing block exemption orders in respect of particular categories of agreement.

Finally, the Commission will also be able to issue individual exemptions, upon the application of undertakings, to agreements that, whilst caught by the broad prohibition in the conduct rules, nonetheless enhance overall economic efficiency or which may
otherwise justify exemption. The Commission is not obliged to make a decision on exemption, but may do so in novel areas of unsettled Hong Kong law. This makes sense given the infancy of the regime in Hong Kong and the lack of established principles to date. It is likely that, in the interim, private undertakings will welcome the certainty of such Commission exemptions, so long as sufficient resources are dedicated so that decisions can be taken in a reasonable timeframe.

The Commission will consist of five to 16 members, including the chairperson, all appointed by the chief executive of the Hong Kong SAR. Such members are expected to have extensive experience and rich knowledge in their own industries – commerce, economics, law, small or medium-sized enterprise or public policy – and will have a significant impact on the direction, and enforcement priorities, the Commission will take.

The Commission was set up on 18 January 2013; on 26 April 2013, the chief executive of the Hong Kong SAR announced the appointment of Ms Anna Wu Hung-yuk as chairperson along with 13 other members of the Competition Commission for a term of three years.

The Tribunal

The Tribunal will be a superior court of record under the Ordinance, meaning that all proceedings will be recorded and published. Its purpose is to hear and determine enforcement applications brought by the Commission as well as follow-on private actions. The Tribunal will also review reviewable determinations made by the Commission. The chief executive of the Hong Kong SAR is to appoint one member of the Tribunal as president and one as deputy president of the Tribunal. The Tribunal may decide its own procedures and, if it deems fit, may follow the practice and procedure of the Court of First Instance in the exercise of its civil jurisdiction. Section 147 of the Ordinance provides that the Tribunal is not bound by the rules of evidence except in proceedings where the Commission applies for a pecuniary or financial penalty; it can therefore take into account any relevant evidence or information whether or not such evidence would be admissible in a court of law.

The Tribunal was established on 1 August 2013 and the Honourable Mr Justice Godfrey Lam Wan-ho was appointed as the president of the Competition Tribunal while the Honourable Madam Justice Queeny Au-Yeung Kwai-yue was appointed as deputy president, both for a term of three years.

The Communications Authority and the Telecommunications Authority

In another notable departure from international norms, there is no general regime of merger control under the Ordinance at present. The merger rule only applies to the telecommunications sector, and the Commission will share jurisdiction with the Communications Authority (CA) and the Telecommunications Authority (TA)
regarding decision-making in this sector. The adjudicative power will be transferred to the Tribunal from the BA and the TA, where it currently resides. The Commission, the BA and the TA will jointly issue a memorandum of understanding to clarify their respective roles and jurisdiction under the new Ordinance.

The transitional period

The government intends to implement the Ordinance in phases to provide for a transitional period of at least a year and has recently indicated this period may be as long as 18 months to two years. Such period is intended to give businesses time to assess their current state of compliance and to adjust their agreements and practices as necessary before becoming subject to the full rigours of the law. It is also designed to give businesses time to train officers and management staff and to consider the possibility of applying for exemptions etc. Obviously these exercises will be more meaningful as and when the anticipated guidelines are published but, based on experience from other jurisdictions, companies should be able to make educated assessments of what their exposures are likely to be, even at this stage and begin to take the necessary measures.

On 18 January 2013 and 1 August 2013, key provisions of the Ordinance came into effect.1

Powers of the Commission

While entrusted with ensuring the observance of the Ordinance, the Commission will lack a key enforcement tool found in other jurisdictions, namely the ability to levy fines directly on undertakings for breaches of the Ordinance. Instead, it will have the power to conduct investigations and bring proceedings against the alleged parties before the Tribunal, which in turn will issue fines where appropriate. However, the Commission is not left entirely toothless; it will have an array of powers, short of being able to levy fines, to enable it to monitor and enforce the Ordinance. The Commission will be able to issue exemption decisions, accept commitments from infringers in return for a decision not to prosecute and issue warning notices for minor infringements and infringement notices for more serious violations.

Complaints and investigations

Part 3 of the Ordinance empowers the Commission to hear complaints and to conduct investigations of its own accord. It is given wide investigatory powers and may conduct raids, enter property and confiscate documents and property upon obtaining the appropriate warrants from the Court of First Instance when it has ‘reasonable cause’ to suspect violations of the Ordinance. Following an investigation, the Commission may decide to bring proceedings against the alleged parties before the Tribunal.

Section 37 provides that any person can lodge a reasonable complaint alleging infringement of any Conduct Rule with the Commission. Section 38 tasks the Commission with promulgating guidelines laying out the manner and form in which complaints are to be made.

Division 2 of part 3 lays out the Commission’s investigatory powers, including the power to obtain production of documents and information (section 41); to require attendance of persons before the investigators (section 42); and to require the veracity of any answers or evidence given to be verified by statutory declaration (section 43) before the Commission. The Commission will also have the power to enter and search a premises; to use reasonable force; to take copies or extracts from any document (or to take possession thereof); and to require any person on the premises to explain any document, if so required.

Failure to comply with the Commission’s investigation without a reasonable excuse is a criminal offence which may lead to a fine and/or imprisonment for up to one year. If an undertaking destroys documents (section 53), obstructs a search (section 54) or provides false or misleading information (section 55), stricter criminal penalties including increased fines and imprisonment for up to two years are possible.

Exemption decisions

Sections 9 and 24 of the Ordinance empower (but do not oblige) the Commission to make decisions on applications made by an undertaking seeking clarity as to whether its conduct or agreements meet the criteria of exclusion or exemption from the first or second conduct rule (whether by virtue of the application of a block exemption or otherwise). In common with other jurisdictions, and to avoid overburdening the resources of the Commission, the Commission will only consider ‘novel or unresolved questions of wider importance or public interest’ or questions for which ‘there is no clarification in existing case law or decisions of the Commission’. The Commission must publish such applications and allow time for representations thereon. The effect of a positive decision will be to exclude or exempt certain conduct or agreements from the prohibitions contained in the First Conduct Rule and the Second Conduct Rule. A decision can be made with a condition or limitation, and the exemption will not be provided when an undertaking does not comply with a condition or limitation.


Where the Commission suspects a possible breach of the Ordinance, it may accept from a person or undertaking a commitment to take or refrain from taking any action and will, upon receipt of this commitment, not commence or continue an investigation nor bring or continue proceedings in the Tribunal. If the Commission decides to accept a commitment, it must give notice in writing of that decision to the person offering the commitment as well as register the commitment in the register of commitments.

The Commission may withdraw its acceptance of a commitment if, at any time, it believes there has been a material change of circumstances or it has reasonable grounds for suspecting that the commitment has failed to be complied with or that the information upon which it based its decision to accept the commitment was incomplete, false or misleading (section 61).

If the Commission considers a person has failed to comply with a commitment, it may apply to the Tribunal which in turn may order that the relevant person must:

  • comply with the commitment;
  • pay a fine equal to any profit gained as a result of the failure to comply with the commitment; and/or
  • pay compensation to any third party for any loss or damage caused by the failure to comply with the commitment (section 63).

Warning notices

Under section 82, for less serious ‘non-hard-core’ violations to the First Conduct Rule the Commission must issue a warning notice to the offending party before it can bring proceedings in the Tribunal. The warning notice should identify the contravening undertaking and conduct and should specify that the conduct should cease within the warning period and should not occur again, failing which the Commission will proceed with proceedings in the Tribunal. This effectively gives an undertaking a period to rectify its wrongdoing and avoid sanction and is likely to be used often as the Commission seeks to educate the Hong Kong market as the Ordinance and guidelines are rolled out.

Infringement notices

Section 67 provides that in cases where the Commission finds more serious ‘hard-core violations’ to the First Conduct Rule and Second Conduct Rule it may, in lieu of bringing proceedings before the Tribunal, reprimand offenders by issuing an infringement notice. The infringement notice will contain required undertakings such as ‘to refrain from any specified conduct, or to take any specified action, that the Commission considers appropriate’ and may ask an undertaking to admit ‘a contravention of the relevant conduct rule’.

Undertakings are not obliged to accept such commitments, but if they do not, the Commission may bring proceedings before the Tribunal. Notice of the intention to issue an infringement notice must be given and the concerned party must be given time to make representations as to why an infringement notice would not be appropriate. An infringement notice can be withdrawn at any time in writing, or it may be extended, either at the Commission’s own volition or on application.

Settlement and commitments are becoming an increasingly used tool in other jurisdictions although they tread a delicate balance between, on the one hand, efficiently bringing infringements to an end and, on the other hand, undermining the deterrent effect of heavy sanctions for getting caught. That balance may be somewhat restored in practice, as the Ordinance specifically identifies an ‘admission’ under a commitment as sufficient grounds for a ‘follow-on’ private damages action (section 110). In practice, the deterrent effect may therefore come from the private rather than the public sector.


Section 80 provides the framework for a leniency regime under the Ordinance. The Commission may enter into a leniency agreement with a person or an undertaking in exchange for cooperation in an investigation or proceedings under the Ordinance. The Commission is given wide discretion not to bring or continue proceedings before the Tribunal for a pecuniary penalty in respect of an alleged contravention of a conduct rule. Leniency extends to officers and employees of corporations. It may be terminated if the information is incomplete, false or misleading, if the undertaking has been convicted of an offence or if the undertaking has failed to comply with the terms of the agreement.

In other jurisdictions, the leniency programme has been a major tool in uncovering anti-competitive behaviour, especially in the field of cartels. It is to be expected that the Commission will develop detailed guidelines in this area as a matter of priority, as the Ordinance gives it significant discretion as matters stand and this is one area where companies require clarity and certainty before taking the difficult decision to come in for leniency and ‘admit’ to their misconduct.

Powers of the Tribunal

The Tribunal may hear applications for the review of reviewable determinations made by the Commission from an affected party as well as hearing applications from the Commission for pecuniary penalties under section 93, where it feels such are appropriate after the conclusion of its investigation. The Tribunal can also hear private damages actions under section 110. Decisions of the Tribunal may be appealed to the Court of Appeal under section 154.

Review by the Tribunal

Section 83 defines the scope of ‘reviewable determinations’ from the Commission. The Tribunal can review a decision or recession thereof of the Commission under the exclusion and exemption mechanism of the Conduct Rules, a decision relating to the issue, variation or revocation of a block exemption order, a decision, or rescission thereof, regarding specific conduct under section 26, a decision relating to the variation or release of a commitment, a decision relating to the termination of a leniency agreement and a decision (or rescission thereof) regarding a merger or proposed merger.

Only the parties that applied for the decision, or made the commitment, or are parties to the leniency agreement in question can make applications to the Tribunal. The Tribunal may either confirm or set aside the whole or part of the determination, and may refer the matter back to the Commission with a direction.

Application for review of a reviewable determination must be made within 30 days of the day on which the Commission’s decision was made although the Tribunal may extend this period for no more than three years. An undertaking can apply for a stay of the execution of reviewable determination pending review although such stay is not automatic (section 89).

Enforcement by the Tribunal


If the Tribunal is satisfied, on application by the Commission, that an undertaking has contravened a competition rule, the Tribunal may order that undertaking to ‘pay the government a pecuniary penalty of an amount it considers appropriate.’

In determining the severity of the fine, the Tribunal may have regard to the nature and extent of the conduct, the loss or damage caused, the circumstances in which the conduct took place and whether the person involved had previously been found to have contravened the Ordinance.

Fines can be levied on up to 10 per cent of the turnover of the undertaking for each year in which the contravention occurred or, if the contravention occurred over more than three years, 10 per cent of the turnover of the undertaking concerned for the three years in which the contravention occurred that saw the highest, second highest and third highest turnover.

The Tribunal can also grant a wide array of other behavioural and structural remedies under schedule 3, as well as grant interim measures and directors’ disqualification orders (for up to five years) under part 6 division 5 of the Ordinance.

Like the European Union, there is no provision for criminal sanctions under the Ordinance (save for failure to comply with an Order or for obstructing an investigation/providing false or misleading information, etc).

Private damages action

Unlike in many other jurisdictions, stand-alone private claims are not allowed under Hong Kong’s new Ordinance. The provisions were removed from the original legislation after fierce lobbying from SMEs who, ironically, feared that larger companies would use private actions to harass them. The Ordinance does allow for ‘follow-on’ actions for damages, following determinations by the Tribunal (or appellate courts) of an infringement or, crucially, an admission, in a commitment that has been accepted by the Commission, that a person has contravened a conduct rule (section 110). The appetite for such actions in Hong Kong remains to be seen, but there is no reason to believe that this will not be a well-used tool, especially if the current debate surrounding the availability of class actions in Hong Kong ends positively.

Closing thoughts

Hong Kong is going through an exciting period; the next few months, and the enforcement priorities taken by the Commission, will shape the competition agenda in Hong Kong for the foreseeable future. The fundamental structures and institutions are now in place and it will be interesting to see how these shape up in practice – in particular, whether the extensive consultation process currently under way on the numerous guidelines will shape recognised international norms into a uniquely ‘Hong Kong’ affair or whether market players will value the certainty and stability that adoption of international experience will offer. In either event, it is imperative that undertakings conducting business in Hong Kong begin to review their agreements and procedures now, and roll out awareness and compliance training to their senior officers and managers. They may wish to evaluate whether applications for exemptions are necessary in light of their existing practices and whether it is in their interests to become actively involved in the consultation process to try and input into the forthcoming guidelines.


  1. On 18 January 2013, the following parts came into effect: sections 1, 2, 35, 38, 40, 59; Part 8,9; section 176; schedule 5; part 6 of schedule 7; parts 5 and 7 and section 32 of schedule 8. On 1 August 2013, part 10 and part 3 of schedule 8 came into effect.

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