The Israel Antitrust Authority (IAA) is an independent government agency, which was established in 1994. Its mandate includes enforcement against anticompetitive restrictive arrangements and monopolies abusing their dominant position, merger control, regulation of collectively dominant firms, as well as market research and competition advocacy roles. The IAA has the power to prosecute criminal cases and its director general can impose administrative financial fines upon certain violations of the Antitrust Act. An antitrust tribunal, residing within the District Court of Jerusalem, has exclusive jurisdiction over non-criminal administrative antitrust proceedings. The District Court of Jerusalem has exclusive jurisdiction over criminal antitrust matters. Both criminal and civil antitrust rulings are subject to appeal before the Supreme Court of Israel.