The National Institute for the Defence of Free Competition and the Protection of Intellectual Property (INDECOPI) continued in 2016 with the consolidation of its agenda on defence of free competition, which has been focused in the battle against cartels. Consequently, several sanctioning proceedings against agents who affected Peruvian antitrust law were started and concluded last year. The most significant cases that were decided were linked to the health sector - a sector of particular interest to the Peruvian competition agency. Furthermore, in 2016 the Leniency Program Guidelines Draft was published, which aims to make the rules of the leniency programme more predictable, in order to attract more applications and thereby to detect more cases of collusion. Applications for leniency increased in 2016 to a historic record of four and, most notably, most of them were related to local cartels. In the same vein, INDECOPI wants to provide greater transparency in its activities to promote competition, which is why it has approved its Market Studies Guidelines.