Canadian antitrust enforcement is based on three core provisions: conspiracy, mergers and abuse of dominance. The abuse of dominance provisions, found in sections 78 and 79 of Canada’s Competition Act,1 are administered and enforced by the federal government through the commissioner of competition (the commissioner), the head of the Competition Bureau (the Bureau). The commissioner investigates allegedly anti-competitive conduct and, where grounds exist, brings a case before the Competition Tribunal (the Tribunal) for adjudication. The commissioner holds exclusive jurisdiction to challenge allegedly abusive conduct before the Tribunal. Contravention of the abuse provisions has recently become potentially more costly, as the Act was amended in 2009 to empower the Tribunal to award monetary penalties of up to C$15 million for multiple violations of the abuse provisions.