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Select specific questions to filter on. Alternatively select no questions and select jurisdictions above to see all question answers for them.
Describe the principal competition rules governing information exchange in your jurisdiction.
Which bodies are responsible for enforcing competition rules on information exchange in your jurisdiction?
Describe the types of information exchanges that may be caught under the competition rules in your jurisdiction.
Are some information exchanges regarded as more serious breaches of the competition rules than others?
To what extent is it necessary for an information exchange to have a negative effect on competition to prove a competition infringement in your jurisdiction?
What types of information exchanges are not caught by the competition laws in your jurisdiction? For example, are certain types of information exchanges viewed as pro-competitive?
To what extent can public information be caught under the competition rules governing information exchange in your jurisdiction?
Are there any specific competition rules (including safe harbours or block exemptions) in place for certain types of information exchange or certain sectors? (Give details.)
Have public bodies in your jurisdiction published any guidance on the competition rules governing information exchange?
What defences are available for information exchanges caught by the competition laws in your jurisdiction. (Describe the types of defences available, the conditions to be fulfilled and any possible challenges in bringing such defences.)
What is the standard of proof and on whom does the burden of proof fall in information exchange cases? Are there any scenarios in which the burden of proof is or could be reversed?
What are the sanctions for anticompetitive information exchanges in your jurisdiction?
Describe any recent cases in the area of information exchange of note in your jurisdiction and how they were decided (such as cases decided by the competition authority or by the courts, or involving private damages).
Are there any proposals to reform the rules governing information exchange in your jurisdiction?
Are there any other noteworthy characteristics or practical examples specific to your jurisdiction?
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