The statutory basis for cartel prohibition is the Law on Protection of Competition No. 4054, dated 13 December 1994 (the Competition Law). The Competition Law finds its underlying rationale in article 167 of the Turkish Constitution of 1982, which authorises the government to take appropriate measures to secure free market economy. The Turkish cartel regime by nature applies ‘administrative’ and ‘civil’ (not criminal) law. The Competition Law applies to individuals and companies alike, if and to what extent they act as an undertaking within the meaning of the Competition Law.