Cartel Enforcement in the Chemicals Sector and Risks Arising from REACH Implementation Cartels represent, without doubt, one of the most predictable areas for potential antitrust risks in the chemicals sector. The industry is especially vulnerable to engaging in cartel activity due to the highly concentrated markets and homogeneous nature of most products involved. Since the adoption of the first EU cartel decisions (the 1969 Quinine and Dyestuffs chemicals cases), the sector has been hit with a high number of Commission decisions imposing heavy fines. Over the last decade, the Commission addressed 21 cartel decisions to the chemical industry (out of 59 issued overall), which thus maintains the highest cartel record compared to any other sector.