Canada: Cartel regulation

Hard-core cartels are subject to criminal prohibitions in Canada under the Competition Act (the Act), a federal statute that applies across Canada and, with very few exceptions, across all industries. The core prohibition is contained in section 45 (the general conspiracy provision), which was amended effective 12 March 2010. In addition, section 46 (implementing foreign conspiracy) and section 47 (bid rigging) may also be applicable depending on the circumstances.1}